Zimbabwe’s Robert Mugabe is the latest in a list of African leaders forced out from power by coups and popular uprisings since 2010.
93-year-old Mugabe resigned as Zimbabwe’s president on Tuesday after a military takeover.
His exit ends a 37-year rule defined by brutality and economic collapse.
“I Robert Gabriel Mugabe in terms of section 96 of the constitution of Zimbabwe hereby formally tender my resignation with immediate effect,” Speaker Mudenda quoted him as he read the resignation letter to parliament.
However, below is a list of African leaders ousted from power since 2010.
2017- GAMBIA: Yahya Jammeh, who came to power in a coup in 1994, left the country on January 21, handing power to Adama Barrow, winner of December 2016 elections.
2014 – BURKINA FASO: President Blaise Compaore, who came to power in a 1987 coup, left the country on October 31 after being ousted in a revolt sparked by his efforts to extend his 27-year hold on power.
2013 – CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC: Ten years after seizing power, General Francois Bozize flees on March 24 when rebels from the Muslim-dominated group Seleka seize the presidential palace, unleashing a bloody conflict with mainly Christian militias.
EGYPT: On July 3 the military ousted Egypt’s first democratically elected leader, the Islamist Mohamed Morsi, after large demonstrations against his one-year rule.
2012 – MALI: Mutinous soldiers overthrown the Bamako government and detain president Amadou Toumani Toure on March 22.
GUINEA BISSAU: A coup took place on April 12 between two rounds of a presidential poll with troops ousting president Raimundo Pereira and the former prime minister.
2011 – TUNISIA: After 23 years in power, and under massive popular pressure, Zine El Abidine Ben Ali flees to Saudi Arabia with his family on January 14.
EGYPT: Hosni Mubarak resigned on February 11, after widespread protests, ending his 30-year reign and handing power to the army.
IVORY COAST: On April 11 Laurent Gbagbo, in power since a controversial 2000 election, is arrested after more than four-months of crisis caused by his refusal to recognise the victory of Alassane Ouattara in the 2010 presidential election.
LIBYA: Dictator Moamer Kadhafi was captured and killed on October 20 after nearly 42 years in power, nine months after NATO-backed rebels rose up against his regime.
2010 – NIGER: On February 18 president Mamadou Tandja was overthrown in a military coup after changing the constitution in order to remain in power beyond two terms. He had been voted into office in 1999.